Utilization of Rice Hull Char-Based Compost for Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Production

Main Article Content

Bennylyn B. Puyongan


The study determined the chemical properties of formulated rice hull char-based compost (RHCBC) and its effect on selected physicochemical soil properties, yield, and profitability of RHCBC for organic potato production under La Trinidad conditions. RHCBC consisting of 50% rice hull char, 25% wild sunflower leaves, and 25% chicken manure were formulated and field-tested for potato production at application rates of 0, 5, 10, and 15 tons ha-1. Results revealed that the formulated RHCBC had 6.48 pH, 12.07% organic carbon, 20.76% organic matter, 0.39% total nitrogen, 0.41% total P2O5, 0.24% total K2O, and 1.05% total N-P2O5-K2O. Soil bulk density (Db), soil pH, organic matter (OM), and exchangeable potassium were not significantly affected by RHCBC application. However, the initial Db of 1.12 decreased to 0.91 to 0.97 g cm-3, and the soil pH increased compared with the control. The application of 15 tons ha-1 RHCBC had the highest OM relative to the control and higher than the initial OM content of the soil before planting. The exchangeable K of soils applied with different RHCBC rates increased from the initial 170 ppm to 227 ppm to 247 ppm. RHCBC application significantly decreased the available phosphorus (P) content of the soil. High amounts of manganese (42.51 ppm), copper (7.31 ppm), and zinc (4.94 ppm) were obtained from the application of 15 tons ha-1 RHCBC. Potato plants applied with 10 tons ha-1 RHCBC had the least non-marketable yield, highest marketable yield, most profitable, and significantly the highest return on investment percentage. Subsequent crops may be recommended considering the high amounts of micronutrients in the soil after harvest.

Article Details



Al-Wabel, M., Usman, A., El-Naggar, A., Aly, A., Ibrahim, H., Elmaghraby, S. & Al-Omran, A. (2014). Conocarpus biochar as a soil amendment for reducing heavy metal availability and uptake by maize plants. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 22(4), 503-511. https://doiorg/10.1016 /j.sjbs.2014.12.003

Asai, H., Samson, B., Stephan, H., Songyikhangsuthor, K., Homma, K., Kiyono, Y., Inoue, Y., Shiraiwa, T., & Horie, T. (2009). Biochar amendment techniques for upland rice production in Northern Laos, 1. Soil physical properties, leaf SPAD and grain yield. Field Crop Research, 111 (1-2), 81-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/jfcr2008.10.008

Aslam, Z., Khalid, M., & Aon, M. (2014). Impact of biochar on soil physical properties. Scholarly Journal of Agricultural Science, 4(5), 280-284.

Barker, A. & Pilbeam, D. (2007). Handbook of plant nutrition. CRC Press.

Biederman, L. & Harpole, W. (2012). Biochar and its effect on plant productivity and nutrient cycling: A meta-analysis. Global Change Biology Bioenergy, 5(2), 202-214. https://doiorg/10.1111/gcbb.12037

Brady, N.C. (1985). The nature and properties of soils (9th ed.). Macmillan Publishing Co.

Brady, N. & Weil, R. (2008). The nature and properties of soils (14th ed.). Pearson Education, Inc.

Bureau of Agriculture And Fisheries Standards. (2016). Philippine National Standards. PNS BAFS 40:2016. http://organic.da.gov.phimages/downloadables/PNS/PNS-Organic-SoilAmendments-PNS-BAFS-40-2016.pdf

Bureau of Soil and Water Management. (2014). Updated manual on soil, water, fertilizer and plant tissue analysis.

Canqui, H. B. (2017). Biochar and soil physical properties. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 81(4), 687-711. https://doiorg/10.2136/sssaj2017.01.0017

DeLuca, T., Mackenzie, M., & Gundale, M. (2009). Biochar effects on soil nutrient transformations. In J. Lehmann & S. Joseph (Eds.), Biochar for environmental management science and technology. (pp 251 – 265). Earthscan. http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/publ/First%20proof%2013-01-09.pdf

Ding, Y., Liu, Y., Liu, S., Li, Z., Tan, X., Huang, X., Zeng, G., Zhou, L., & Zheng, B. (2016). Biochar to improve soil fertility. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 36(36). https:/ doi.org/10.1007/s13593-016-0372-z

Domingo, O. (2007). Carbonized Rice Hull: from Waste to Soil Conditioner. http://i-makeadifferenceblogspot.com/2008/07/carbonizedrice-hull-from-waste-to-soil.html

Gapew, H.C. (2013). Formulation and effect of poultry litter char-based organic fertilizers for organic production of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.). Unpublished Master’ Thesis. Benguet State University - La Trinidad.

Gaskin, J., Speir, R., Harris, K., Das, C., Lee, R., Morish, L., & Fisher, D. (2010). Effect of peanut hull and pine chip biochar on soil nutrients, corn nutrient status, and yield. Agronomy Journal, 102(2), 623-633. https://doiorg/10.2134/agronj2009.0083

Haefele, S., Konboon, Y., Wongboon, W., Amarante, S., Maarifat, A., Pfeiffer, E., & Knoblauch, C. (2011). Effects and fate of biochar from rice residues in rice-based systems. Field Crops Research, 121(3), 430-440. https://doiorg/10.1016/j.fcr.2011.01.014

Havlin, J., Beaton, J., Tisdale, S., & Nelson, W. 1999). Soil fertility and fertilizers: An introduction to nutrient management (6th ed.). Prentice Hall, Inc.

Herath, H., Arbestain, M., & Hedley, M. (2013). Effect of biochar on soil physical properties in two contrasting soils: An Alfisol and an Andisol. Geoderma, 209-210, 188-197. https://doiorg/10.1016/j.geoderma.2013.06.016

Hillel, D. (2008). Soil in the environment: crucible of terrestrial life. Elsevier. Inc.

Ifansyah, H. (2013). Soil pH and Solubility of Aluminum, Iron, and Phosphorus in Ultisols: the Roles of Humic Acid. Journal of Tropical Soils, 18(3), 203-208. https://media.neliticom/media /publications/134295-EN-soil-phand-solubilityof-aluminum-iron.pdf

Jeffery, S., Verheijen, F., Van Der Velde, M., & Bastos, A. (2011). A quantitative review of the effects of biochar application to soils on crop productivity using meta-analysis. Agriculture, Ecosystem & Environment, 144(1), 175-187. https://doiorg/10.1016/j.agee.2011.08. 015

Labiano, A., & Gayonan, C. (2019). Nitrogen mineralization in paddy soil as affected by the application of agricultural waste-derived biochar. 22nd Philippine Society of Soil Science and Technology, Inc. (PSSST) Annual Meeting and Scientific Conference. Paper presentation. Junior Category.

Laurean, C.P. (1987). Formulation and utilization of organic fertilizers. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Lehmann, J., & Joseph, S. (2009). Biochar from environment management: an introduction in biochar for environment management: Science and Technology. Earthscan Publishers Ltd.

Lehmann, J., Major, J., Rondon, M., Molina, D., & Riha, S. (2010). Maize yield and nutrition during 4 years after biochar application to a Colombian Savannah Oxisol. Plant and Soil, 333, 117-128. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-0100327-0

Liu, S., Meng, J., Jiang, J., Yang, X., Lan, Y., Cheng, X., & Chen, W. (2017). Rice husk biochar impacts soil phosphorus availability, phosphatase activities and bacterial community characteristics in three different soil types. Applied Soil Ecology, 116, 12-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/japsoil.2017.03.020

Nitura, D., & Perlas, F. (2018). Chicken feather biochar: percentage recovery, characteristics and effect on soil properties and growth and yield of upland rice. 21st Philippine Society of Soil Science and Technology, Inc. (PSSST) Annual Meeting and Scientific Conference. pp. 24 – 25.

Patricio, A.C. (2018). Nutrient analysis of acidic soil amended with varying rates of two biochar sources. 21st Philippine Society of Soil Science and Technology, Inc. (PSSST) Annual Meeting and Scientific Conference. pp. 21 – 23.

Persaud, T., Homenauth, O., Fredericks, D., & Hamer, S. (2018). Effect of rice husk biochar as an amendment on a marginal soil in Guyana. World Environment, 8(1), 20-25. http://articlesa pub.org/10.5923.j.env.20180801.03.html#Ref

Puga, A., Melo, L., De Abreu, C., & Beesley, L. (2015). Biochar application to a contaminated soil reduces the availability and plant uptake of zinc, lead and cadmium. Journal of Environmental Management, 159, 86-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.05.036

Rondon, M., Lehmann, J., Ramirez, J., & Hurtado, M. (2007). Biological nitrogen fixation by common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) increases with bio-char additions. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 43, 699-708. https://doiorg/10.1007/s00374-006-0152-z

Roque, A. (2014). Even prices of rice hull increasing. Philippine Daily Inquirer.

Russel, P. (n.d.). BioChar. https://www.peterrussell.com/Earth/BioChar.php

Sarong, M., & Orge, R. (2015). Effect of rice hull biochar on the fertility and nutrient holding capacity of sandy soils. OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, 8(12), 33-44. https://ssrn.com/abstract=2730687

Singh, B., Hatton, B., Balwant, S., Cowie, A., & Kathuria, A. (2010). Influence of biochars on nitrous oxide emission and nitrogen leaching from two contrasting soils. Journal of Environmental Quality, 39(4), 1224-1235. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2009.0138

Spokas, K., Koskinen, W., Baker, J., & Reicosky, D. (2009). Impacts of woodchip biochar additions on greenhouse gas production and sorption degradation of two herbicides in a Minnesota soil. Chemosphere, 77(4), 574-581. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.06.053

Tomczyk, A., & Solowska, P. (2019). Biochar efficiency in copper removal from Haplic soils. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 16, 4899-4912. https:/doi.org/10.1007/s13762-019-02227-4

Uchimiya, M., Wartelle, L., Klasson, K., & Lima, I. (2011). Influence of soil properties on heavy metal sequestration by biochar amendment: 1. Copper sorption isotherms and the release of cations. Chemosphere, 82(10), 1431-1437. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.11.050

Verheijen, F., Jeffery, S., Bastos, A., Van Der Velde, M., & Diafas, I. (2009). Biochar application to soils-a critical scientific review of effects on soil properties, processes and functions. European Commision Publication Office.

Woofl, D., Amonette, J., Sreet-Perrott, F., Lehmann, J., & Joseph, S. (2010). Sustainable biochar to mitigate global climate change. Nature Communication, 1, 56. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms1053

Yao, Y., Gao, B., Zhang, M., Inyang, M., & Zimmerman, A. (2012). Effect of biochar amendment on sorption and leaching of nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate in a sandy soil. Chemosphere, 89(11), 1467-1471. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.06.002