Direct Organogenesis and Regeneration of Arabica Coffee Cultivars

Main Article Content

Milagros R. Dumaslan Belinda A. Tad-awan Sheryl B. Manuel


Arabica coffee is a very important crop in the Cordillera region and one of the promising industrial crops in the highlands. To develop a tissue culture protocol for ‘Typica’, ‘Mundo Novo’ and ‘Red Bourbon’ cultivars, different growth hormone combinations of Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP), Kinetin, (Kin), Indole Acetic Acid, (IAA), and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) with different concentrations of 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 ppm/L and light conditions were tested on the somatic embryo as an explant grown in MS medium. Result showed that using somatic embryo of ‘Mundo Novo’ inoculated in 2ppm BAP and 2ppm Kinetin at 16 hours light, shoot emerged after 18.2 days and shoot proliferated with an average of 4 shoots at 91.75 days after inoculated in 2ppm BAP+ 2ppm Kin + 1ppm IAA at 24 hours light. However, 'Typica’ inoculated in 2ppm BAP, 2ppm Kin and 2ppm IAA at 24 hours light induced shoot emergence after 19 days and proliferated through direct organogenesis with an average of 5.43 shoots in 2ppm BAP +2ppm Kin + 2ppm IAA at 87.4 days after inoculation at 16 hours light condition. Subsequently, 'Red Bourbon' initiated shoot emergence after 35 days inoculated in 1ppm GA + 8ppm BA + 0.5ppm IAA in dark condition. Moreover, the regeneration of plantlets transferred to MS containing 2 ppm IBA, 2 ppm NAA and 2 ppm IAA were elongated and rooted 2-3 months after transplanting. Highest percentage of survival was recorded on 1 part of vermicompost: 1 part sand: 1 part of burnt rice hull on cultivar 'Red Bourbon' and 'Mundo Novo'. In addition, soil media with 1 part of BSU compost: 1 part sand: 1 part of burnt rice hull has a 100% survival rate on 'Typica' and 'Mundo Novo'.

Article Details



Aga, E., Bryngelsson, T., Bekele, E., & Salomon, B. (2003). Genetic diversity of forest arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L.) in Ethiopia as revealed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Hereditas, 138(1): 36-46.

Aga, E., & Khilare, Y. (2017). In Vitro multiplication of Coffea arabica L. from leaf explants through indirect embryogenesis. International Journal of Botany Studies,.2(1): 17-22.

Anthony, F., Combes, M.C., Astorga, C., Bertrand, B., Graziosi, G., & Lashermes, P. (2002). The origin of cultivated Coffea arabica L. cultivars revealed by AFLP and SSR markers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 104: 894–900.

Ashebre, K.M. (2016). The Role of Biotechnology on Coffee Plant Propagation: A Current Topics Paper. Haramaya University, School of Graduate Studies. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 6(5): 13-19.

Bolvenkel, E., Buckley, T., & Eijgendaal, C. (1993). Report on a mission for the International Trade Centre. Dissemination Activities for Coffee – an exporters guide (Project Nos INT/50/33– INT/24 /64 – INT/84/01).

Carneiro, M.F., & Ribeiro, T.M.O. (1989). Micropropagation of Coffea arabica L. cv. Caturra Micropropagation of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) by means of axillary buds. Broteria Genetica, 85: 139-152.

Chaves, C.M.C. (2014) In the Hands of Indigenous Peoples: The Future of Upland Coffee Regions in the Philippines. Review of Women’s Studies, 21(2): 29-50.

Christianson, M.L. (1987). Causal events in morphogenesis. p. 45–56. In: C. E. Green, D. A.b Sommers, W. P. Hackett, and D. D. Biesboer (eds.), Plant tissue culture. Allan R. Liss, New York

Davis, A.P., Tosh, J., Ruch, N., & Fay, M.F. (2011). Growing coffee: Psilanthus (Rubiaceae) subsumed on the basis of molecular and morphological data; implications for the size, morphology, distribution and evolutionary history of Coffea. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 167(4): 357–377.

Davis, J.M., & Becwar, M.R. (2007). Examples of current implementation of cloning technology worldwide A. Page (Ed.), Developments in tree cloning. Pira International Ltd. Leatherhead. UK.

Dumaslan, M.R. (2018). Establishment of Tissue Cultured Strawberry Plantlets Using Organic Technology under Protected Environment Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet. Reported during In House Review.

Dumaslan, M.R. (2015). Root Formation and Growth of Rattan in Vitro Using Different Media Concentrations. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet. Reported during In House Review.

Ebrahim, N., Shibli, R., Makhadmeh, I., Shatnawi, M., & Abu-Ein, A. (2007). In vitro propagation and in vivo acclimatization of three coffee cultivars (Coffea arabica L.) from Yemen. World Applied Science Journal, 2: 142–150.

Harris, R.E., & Stevenson, J.H. (1979). Virus elimination and rapid propagation of grapes in vitro. Comb. Proc. Int. Plant Prop. Soc., 29, 95-108.

Ibrahim, M.S.D., Hartati, R.S., Rubiyoa, Purwito, A., & Sudarsono. (2013). In Direct and Indirect Somatic Embryogenesis On Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica). Indones. J. Agric. Sci.; 14( 2): 79-86.

International Coffee Genome Network. (1999). Sequencing the coffee genome.

Ismail, S., Naqvi, B., Anwar, N., & Zuberi, R. (2003). In vitro multiplication of Coffea arabica. Pak. J. Bot., 35(5): 829-834.

Killip, T. (2010). Promoting Arabica coffee for the Cordillera Highlands. Agri Business Week.

Kumar, V., Naidu, M.M., & Ravishankar, G.A. (2006). Developments in coffee biotechnology – in vitro plant propagation and crop improvement. Plant Cell Tiss. Organ Cult., 87: 49-65.

Labouisse, J.P., Bellachew, B., Kotecha, S., & Bertrand, B. (2008). Current status of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) genetic resources. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 55: 1079–1093.

Lashermes, P., Combes, M.C., Trouslot, P., & Charrier, A. (1997). Phylogenetic relationships of coffee tree species (Coffea L.) as inferred from ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Theor. Appl. Genet. 94: 947–955.

Lashermes, P., Andrzejewski, S., Bertrand, B., Combes, M.C., Dusert, S., Graziosi, G., Trouslot, P., & Anthony, F. (2000). Molecular analysis of introgressive breeding in coffee (Coffea arabica L.). Theor. Appl. Gen., 100: 139-146.

Miler, N., Kulus, D. Wozny, A., Rymarz, D., Hajzer, M., Wierzbowski, K., Szeffz, L., & Nelke, R. (2019). Applicationof wide-spectrum lightemmitting diodes in micropropagation of popular ornamental plants species: a study on plant quality and cost reduction. In Vitro Cell.Dev. Biol.-Plant, 55: 99-108.

Monaco, L.C., Sundahl, M.R., Carvalho, A., Crocomo, O.J., & Sharp, W.R. (1995). Application of tissue culture in the improvement of coffee. In: Reinert, J. and Y.P,S. Bajaj (Eds). Applied and Fundament Aspects of Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture. Narosa publ., India.

Montes, S. (1982). Cultivo in vitro de embriones de Coffea arabica L. variedad Caturra. Cult. Trop., 4: 49-55.

Munoz-Sanchez, J.A., & Hernandez-Stomayor, S.M.T. (2008). Biotechnology in Coffee Research. The Americas Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology, 2(2): 85-95. 0812/AmJPSB_2(1&2)/AmJPSB_2(2)85-95o.pdf

Raghavan, V., & Sharma, K.K. (1995). Zygotic embryogenesis in gymnosperms and angiosperms. In: Thorpe TA (ed), In vitro embryogenesis in plants, pp.73-115. Kluwer Academic press, The Netherlands.

Reuveni, M., & Evenor, D. (2007). On the effect of light on shoot regeneration in petunia. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, 89(1): 49-54.

Sheringtton, P.D., & George, E.F. (1984). Plant Propagation by tissue culture. Handbook and directory of commercial laboratories. Exegetics Ltd. Edington, Westbury, Wilts.BA13 4QG, England Pp 15-42, 373.