School-Based Management in Benguet, Philippines: Its Impact to Quality Improvement among Public Secondary School Heads

Main Article Content

Percyveranda A. Lubrica Imelda G. Parcasio Jingle P. Cuevas Manolita N. Alvaro Alma Vida G. Gallardo Ruth S. Batani


Experts agree that there is a need for continuous evaluation  and upgrading for school-based management (SMB) to be fully  realized. In the Philippines, there had been few attempts at  the national level but in-depth, localized evaluation is being  recommended. Hence, this study was conceptualized to  document and determine the effect of SMB on the school  heads’ governance of secondary school in Benguet, Philippines.  The study employed both quantitative method (structured  survey) and qualitative method (focused group discussion and  interviews). Results showed that the use of SMB by school  heads is a key factor in effectively running the school system.  Manifestations of these are observed in the very satisfactory  application of the SMB knowledge and skills in school  governance with minimal support and guidance from their  superiors. In addition, the school heads’ extent of application of the acquired SBM knowledge and skills have influenced their  capability in school governance. However, the school heads  expressed developmental needs to further their management  skills. Such results imply a substantial realization on the  implementation of SMB in secondary schools embarking on  institutionalizing quality improvement measures in all program  areas  as  mandated  in  their  respective  school  systems

Article Details



AusAID ERF. (2011). “Current Issues in Education: School Grants and School-based Management.” Canberra; Bruns, B., D. Filmer, and H. Patrinos (2011) “Making Schools Work: New Evidence on Accountability Reforms” World Bank, Washington, D.C.; and Carr-Hill, R., C. Rolleston, T. Pherali, and R. Schendel (2014). “The Effects of School- based Decision-making on Educational Outcomes in Low- and Middle-income contexts: A Systematic Review” Institute of Education, London.

Abulencia, A.S. (2013). School-based management: A structural reform intervention. Retrieve from: School-Based_Management_A-Structural_Re form_Intervention.pdf

Adams, J.E., Jr., & Kirst, M.W. (1999). New demands and concepts for educationalaccountability: Striving for results in an era of excellence. In J. Murphy (Ed.), Handbook ofResearch on Educational Administration, 463-489. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

Barrera-Osorio, F., Fasih, T., Patrinos, H.A., & With- Santibañez, L. (2009). Decentralized decision- making in schools: The theory and evidence on school-based management. Washington, DC: The World Bank.

Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda (BESRA). (2009). Moving Forward in the Implementation of the Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda (BESRA). do-34-s-2009-moving-forward-in-the-implemen tation-of-the-basic-education-sector-reform- agenda-besra/  

Blase, J., & Blase, J. (2001). Empowering teachers: What successful principals do (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Bryke, A.S., & Schneider, B. (2002). Trust in schools: A core resource for improvement. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

Caldwell, B.J. (2005). School-based management, education policy series. The International institute of Educational Planning and the International Academy of Education, Paris: UNESCO.

Cameron, K.S., & Whetten, D.A. (1981). Perceptions of organizational effectiveness over organizational life cycles. Administrative Science Quarterly, 26: 525-544.

Daft, R.L. (2008). Management. Thomson Learning Asia, Singapore. Thomson Asian edition, 8th edition. pp. 2- 10.

Forsyth, P.B., Barnes, L.L.B., & Adams, C.M. (2006). Trust-Effectiveness Patterns In Schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 44(2): 122-141.

Gamage, D., & San Antonio, D. (2006). Effective participatory school administration, leadership, and management: Does it affect the trust levels of stakeholders? Retrieved from content/ m14112/1.2/

Gertler, P., Patrinos, H., & Rubio-Codina, M. (2007). Methodological issues in the evaluation of school- based management reforms. Draft, World Bank, Washington, DC.

Goertz, M.E. (2000, April). Local Accountability: The role of the district and school in monitoring policy, practice and achievement. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, Louisiana. Retrieved from the ERIC database. (ED445032)

Hallinger, P. (1991). Instructional leadership in secondary schools: Developing a framework. In P. George & E.C. Potter (Eds.), School-Based Management: Theory and Practice, 46-51.Reston, VA: National Association of Secondary School Principals.

Hallinger, P., & Heck, R.H. (1996). Reassessing the principal's role in school effectiveness: A review of empirical research, 1980-1995. Education Administration Quarterly, 32(1): 5-44.

Itika, J.S. (2011). Fundamentals of human resource management: Emerging experiences from Africa. Leiden, Netherlands: African Studies Centre.

Khattri, N., Ling, C., & Jha, S. (2010). “The Effects of School-based Management in the Philippines: An Initial Assessment Using Administrative Data” Policy Research Working Paper Series. No. 5248, World Bank, Washington, D.C. and
Yamauchi, F. (2014) “An Alternative Estimate of School-based Management Impacts on Students’ Achievements: Evidence from the Philippines.” Journal of Development Effectiveness. 6, no. 2: 97-110.

Leithwood, K., & Riehl, C. (2003). What we know about successful school leadership. Paper prepare for the AERA Division A Task Force for the Development of an Agenda for Future Research on Educational Leadership. Retrieved from successful-leadership.pdf

Lubrica, P., Alvaro, M., Montemayor, M., Carino, E., & Namuhe, M. (2011), School-based management competencies among school heads in the secondary public school systems in Benguet and Ifugao: An Assessment. Research and Educational Development Training Institute, Philippines. ISSN 1656-166. Volume 8: pp.338-345 Mulford, B. (1996). Do school principals make a difference? Recent evidence and implications. Leading and Managing, 2(3), 155-170.

Nelly, T. (2008). Roles, duties and responsibilities of school management team. Training manual for secondary school managers. Kigali, Africa: Mineduc School Management.

Santibañez, L. (2006). What is school-based management. Washington, DC: Education, Human Development Network. Sharma, S., & Kannan, S. (2012). Instructional supervision: A tool for improvement or weapon for punishment. The International Research Journal of Social Science & Management, 2(8): 29-35.  

Siegall, M., & Worth, C. (2001). The impacts of trust and control on faculty reactions to merit pay. Personnel Review, 30(6): 646-656.

Spear, J.P. (1983). School site budgeting/ management: The state of the art. Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse. Retrieved from http://

Tschannen-Moran, M. (2001). Collaboration and the need for trust. Journal of Educational Administration, 39(4): 308-331.

Walker, A., & Dimmock, C. (2000). Mapping the way ahead: leading educational leadership into the globalised world. School Leadership & Management, 20(2): 227-233.

Wallace Foundation. (2013). The school principal as a leader: guiding schools to better teaching and learning (2nd ed.). New York, USA: Author. Retrieved from http://www.wallacefoundation. org/knowledge-center/school-leadership/effective-principalleadership/Pages/overview- the-school-principal-as-leader.aspx

Waters, T., Marzano, R.J., & McNulty, B. (2003). Balanced leadership: What 30 years of research tells us about the effect of leadership on student achievement. Denver, CO: Mid-Continent Regional Education Laboratory.

Weng, F.Y. (2003). Centralization and decentralization in educational governance in Taiwan, in Mok, K.H, centralization and decentralization: Educational reforms and changing governance in Chinese societies. Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research centre, the University of Hong Kong.

World Bank & AusAID (2013). “School-based Management in the Philippines: An Empirical Investigation.” World Bank and AusAID, Manila. World Bank & AusAID (2016). “Assessing School- based Management in the Philippines”. Philippine Education Note, 5: 1-16.

Most read articles by the same author(s)