Main Article Content
Drug addicts as a stigmatized group became important to study due to the public sentiments, media discourses, and government actions they have stirred within the country. This research explored how information received through broadcast media (i.e. through priming) influences attitudes toward drug addicts. In this research, priming was accomplished through the exposure of the research participants to media stimuli on drug addicts. Through a 2×3 mixed design experiment, participants’ perceptions of drug addicts were measured using an explicit attitude scale and implicit attitudes measurement using the Single Target-Implicit Association Test (ST-IAT). The baseline explicit and implicit attitudes were initially measured, then re-measured after each presentation of a news report about drug addicts who have either recovered from their condition or committed a heinous crime (within-subjects). Order effects on ST-IAT scores were also accounted for by counterbalancing the order of primes presented (between-subjects). Results showed that the order of prime presentation did not result in significant differences in change of attitude. Furthermore, recovery (positive) primes result in less negative to neutral but not positive attitudes, whereas criminal (negative) primes simply return participants to almost baseline negative attitudes. Therefore, although media representations can influence public attitudes toward drug addicts, such effects are nuanced and crucially dependent on the features of media information, what representations or attributes are made salient, and what domain of attitudes is being investigated.
Blair, I.V., Ma, J.E., & Lenton, A.P. (2001). Imagining stereotypes away: the moderation of implicit stereotypes through mental imagery. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(5): 828–841. DOI: 10.1037//0022-35220.127.116.118
Bluemke, M., & Friese, M. (2008). Reliability and validity of the single-target IAT (ST-IAT): Assessing automatic affect towards multiple attitude objects. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38: 977–997. DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.487
Bogardus, E.S. (1933). A social distance scale. Sociology and Social Research, 17: 265–271.
Bryan, A., Moran, R., Farrell, E., & O’Brien, M. (2000). Drug-related knowledge, attitudes and beliefs in Ireland: Report of a nation-wide survey. Dublin: The Health Research Board.
Bueza, M. (2017, April 23). In Numbers: The Philippines ‘War on Drugs’. Rappler. http://www. rappler.com/newsbreak/iq/145814-numbersstatistics-philippines-war-drugs
Cabrera, R. (2017, May 4). PDEA: Philippines has 4.7 M drug Users. Philippine Star. http://www. philstar.com/headlines/2017/05/04/1696547/ pdea-philippines-has-4.7-m-drug-users
Charlesworth, T.E.S., & Banaji, M.R. (2019). Patterns of Implicit and Explicit Attitudes: I. Long-Term Change and Stability from 2007 to 2016. Psychological Science, 30(2): 174-192. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797618813087
Cooper, J., Blackman, S., & Keller, K. (2015). The science of attitudes. New York: Routledge.
Cunanan, A.L., & Yabut, H. (2019). Lived Experiences of Stigma Among Filipino Former Drug Dependents: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 52(1): 127–154. https://doi.org/ 10.31710/pjp/0052.01.05
Dasgupta, N., & Greenwald, A.G. (2001). On the malleability of automatic attitudes: combating automatic prejudice with images of admired and disliked individuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(5): 800–814. 10.1037//00 22-3518.104.22.1680
Dijksterhuis, A. (2004). Think Different: The Merits of Unconscious Thought in Preference Development and Decision Making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87(5): 586–598. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1246
Domingo, K. (2016, September 2). Government’s heartbreaking anti-illegal drug ads. ABS-CBN News. http://news.abs-cbn.com/news/09/02/16/ watch-governments-heartbreaking-anti-illegaldrug-ads
Domke, D., Shah, D.V., & Wackman, D.B. (1998). Media priming effects: Accessibility, association, and activation. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 10(1): 51–74. 10.1093/ijpor/ 10.1.51
Eagly, A.H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The Psychology of Attitudes. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt, Barace & Janovich.
Fazio, R.H. (1990). Multiple Processes by which Attitudes Guide Behavior: The Mode Model as an Integrative Framework. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 23: 75–109. 10.1016/s0065-2601(08)60318-4
Ford, R. (2011). Interpersonal challenges as a constraint on care: The experience of nurses’ care of patients who use illicit drugs. Contemporary Nurse, 37(2): 241–252. https://doi. org/10.5172/conu.2011.37.2.241
Friese, M., Bluemke, M.,& Wanke, M. (2007). Predicting Voting Behavior with Implicit Attitude Measure: The 2002 German Paliamentary Election. Experiment Psychology, 54(4): 247-255. 10.1027/1618-3126.96.36.199
GMA News. (2016, September 22). Dating drug addict, nagbagong-buhay at nagpatayo ng drug rehab center para mga lulong sa droga. GMA. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y1LJFX_RP
Gershman, J. (2016, December 16). Human Rights and Duterte’s War on Drugs (M. Xu, Interviewer) [Interview]. In Council of Foreign Relations Org. https://www.cfr.org/interview/human-rightsand-dutertes-war-drugs
Greenwald, A.G., & Banaji, M.R. (1995). Implicit social cognition: Attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102(1): 4–27. 10.1037/0033-295x .102.1.4
Greenwald, A.G., McGhee, D.E., & Schwartz, J.L.K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The implicit association test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(6): 1464–1480. 10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.524
Greenwald, A.G., Nosek, B.A., & Banaji, M.R. (2003). Understanding and using the implicit association test: I. An improved scoring algorithm. Journal of personality and social psychology, 85(2): 197216. 10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.206 Greenwald, A.G., Poehlman, T.A., Uhlmann, E.L., & Banaji, M.R. (2009). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity. Journal of personality and social psychology, 97(1): 17-41.
Hoewe, J. (2020). Towards a Theory of Media Priming. Annals of the International Communication Association, 44(4): 312-321. https: //doi.org/10.1080/23808985.2020.1815232
Hoffman, W., Gawronski, B., Gschwendner, T., Le, H., Schmitt, M. (2005). A Meta-Analysis on the Correlation Between the Implicit Association Test and Explicit Self-Report Measures. Society for Persoanlity and Social Psychology, 31(10): 1369-1385. 10.1177/0146167205275613
Iyengar, R. (2016, September 15). Inside Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte’s war on drugs. Time. http://time.com/4495896/philippine-presidentrodrigo-duterte/
Karpinski, A., & Steinman, R.B. (2006). The Single Category Implicit Association Test as a Measure of Implicit Social Cognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(1) 16–32. 10.1037/0022 -35220.127.116.11
Kauffman, S.E., Silver, P., & Poulin, J. (1997). Gender differences in attitudes toward alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. Social Work, 42(3): 231–241. 10.1093/sw/42.3.231
Kenari, M.A., Ashtiyani, J.C., & Jalali, A. (2019). The Experience of the Addicted Families from the Stigma of Disease: A Qualitative Study. Razi Journal of Medical Sciences, 6: 127-136.
Keppel, G., & Wickens, T.D. (2004). Design and analysis: A researcher’s handbook (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Labor, P.D.P., & Gastardo-Conaco, M.C. (2017). The Role of Social Perceptions, Beliefs, and Emotions on Support for Punitive Action toward Drug Dealers and Users. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 50(2): 67-96.
Lancaster, K., Hughes, C.E., Spicer, B., MatthewSimmons, F., & Dillon, P. (2011). Illicit drugs and the media: Models of media effects for use in drug policy research. Drug and Alcohol Review, 30(4): 397–402. 10.1111/j.1465-3362.2010 .00239.x.
Lee, Y., & Min, Y. (2020). Attribute agenda setting and affective priming in a South Korean election: how media descriptions of candidate attributes affect political decision-making. Asian Journal Of Communication, 30(1): 20-38. https://doi.org/10. 1080/01292986.2019.1688364
Marhe, R., Waters, A.J.,van de Wetering., B.J.M., & Franken, I.H.A. (2012). Associations Between Implicit and Explicit Drug-Related Cognitions and Relapse: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81(1): 1-12. 10.1037/a003 0754
McLellan, A.T., Lewis, D.C., O’Brien, C.P., & Kleber, H.D. (2000). Drug Dependence, a Chronic Medical Illness. JAMA, 284(13): 1689. https:// doi.org/10.1001/jama.284.13.1689
Mora-Ríos, J., Ortega-Ortega, M., & MedinaMora, M.E. (2016). Addiction-Related Stigma and Discrimination: A Qualitative Study in Treatment Centers in Mexico City. Substance Use & Misuse, 52(5): 594–603. https://doi.org/10.10 80/10826084.2016.1245744
New York Times News Service. (2016, August 14). Duterte’s drug war draws varied reactions, mainly shock. Philippine Daily Inquirer. http://newsinfo. inquirer.net/805946/dutertes-drug-war-drawsvaried-reactions-mainly-shock
Robertson, P. (2020, September 28). Another Spike in Philippines’ ‘Drug War’ Deaths. Human Rights Watch Org. https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/09 /28/another-spike-philippines-drug-war-deaths
Ronzani, T.M., Higgins-Biddle, J., & Furtado, E.F. (2009). Stigmatization of alcohol and other drug users by primary care providers in Southeast Brazil. Social Science & Medicine, 69(7): 10801084. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2009. 07.026
Roskos-Ewoldsen, D.R., Roskos-Ewoldsen, B., & Carpentier, F.R.D. (2002). Media priming: A synthesis. Media effects: Advances in theory and research, 2: 97–120.
Scheufele, D.A., & Tewksbury, D. (2007). Framing, agenda setting, and priming: The evolution of three media effects models. Journal of Communication, 57(1); 9–20. 10.1111/j.00219916.2007.00326.x
Scott, W.A. (1968). Attitude measurement. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronzon (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (2nd ed.). London: McGraw-Hill
Sherif, C.W., & Markley, O.W. (1972). Comment on interpretation of latitude of rejection as an ‘artifact’. Psychological Bulletin, 78(6): 476–478.
Sherman, S.J., Rose, J.S., Koch, K., Presson, C.C., & Chassin, L. (2003). Implicit and explicit attitudes toward cigarette smoking: The effects of context and motivation. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 22(1): 13–39. 10.1521/jscp.18.104.22.16866
Singleton, N. (2011). Getting Serious about Stigma in Scotland: The problem with stigmatising drug users. London. UK Drug Policy Commission. http://www.ukdpc.org.uk/publications. shtml#Stigma_reports
Social Weather Stations (2017, April 18). First Quarter 2017 Social Weather Survey: 73% of Pinoys. Social Weather Stations. https://www. sws.org.ph/swsmain/artcldisppage/?artcsyscode= ART-20170418140131
Sriram, N., & Greenwald, A.G. (2009). The brief implicit association test. Experimental Psychology, 56(4): 283–294. 10.1027/1618-322.214.171.1243
Sungu, H. (2015). Attitudes towards substance addiction: A study of Turkish university students. Educational Research and Reviews: Academic Journals, 10(7): 1015–1022. 10.5897/ERR2015. 2096
von Hippel, W., Brener, L., & von Hippel, C. (2008). Implicit prejudice toward injecting drug users predicts intentions to change jobs among drug
and alcohol nurses. Psychological Science, 19(1): 7–11. 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02037.x
Worley, W. (2016, July 2). Philippines president Rodrigo Duterte tells people to ‘go ahead and kill’ drug addicts. The Independent. http://www. independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/philippinespresident-rodrigo-duterte-tells-people-to-goahead-and-kill-drug-addicts-a7116456.html
Yan, Y., & Liu, J. (2016). Effects of media exemplars on the perception of social issues with pre-existing beliefs. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 93(4): 1026–1049. http://doi.org/10.1177/1077699016629374
Yen, J., Durrheim, K., & Tafarodi, R. (2018). ‘I'm happy to own my implicit biases’: Public encounters with the implicit association test. British Journal of Social Psychology, 57(3): 505523. 10.1111/bjso.12245
Zogmaister, C., Roccato, M., & Borra, L. (2013). Health practitioners’ implicit and explicit attitudes toward drug addicts predict absenteeism and extra work. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 35(2): 191–199. http://doi.org/ 10.1080/01973533.2013.764300