Main Article Content
Literature provides evidence that gender-specific analysis of agricultural production can improve system performance. This study documents and examines the gender division of roles and responsibilities in root and tuber crops production among indigenous peoples in the Northern Philippines using secondary data, focus group discussions with 83 men and 101 women farmers, field visits, and direct observations. The study covered 11 provinces and 13 indigenous communities: Ibalois, Kankana-eys, Applai-Kankana-eys, Kalanguyas, Isnegs, Biga-Kalingas, Masadiit-Tingguians, Iyattukas, Ivatans, Bagos, Bugkalots, Aetas, and Buhid-Mangyans, as well as the Kapampangan and Ilocano rootcrop farmers in Central Luzon. Gender roles and gender division of labor are mostly similar among selected ethnolinguistic groups in different landscapes. Women’s labor participation with men in land preparation is higher in swidden farming, rainfed sloping field, and dry land, which are unfavorable environments. Men dominate activities that require physical strength such as land preparation, spraying chemicals, and hauling of inputs and harvested crops. Women in subsistence and small farms participate more in field activities. Also, in indigenous groups, women are traditionally exposed to physical labor compared with those in irrigated areas, wherein the farming households are better off. Results also revealed that men dominate crop maintenance in commercial production of rootcrops among Kapampangans and Ilocanos, but not for Benguet wherein both men and women almost equally execute potato production activities. Findings imply that policy and development workers can capitalize on the active indigenous women labor participation in matters related to root and tuber crops production as a strategy for food security.
production in Central Luzon. UPWARD Secondary
farmers of secondary crops? Women and rootcrop
livelihood in the Philippines. FAO-RAP Project,
CIP-UPWARD, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines.
Bertuso, A. (2019). Gender, Climate Change, and
Root and Tuber Crops: A Case Study in Eastern
Visayas, Philippines. Gender Dimension of
Climate Change Research in Agriculture: Case
Studies in Southeast Asia. Southeast Asian
Regional Center for Graduate Study and
Research in Agriculture (SEARCA), College, Los
Baños, Laguna, Philippines; and Wageningen, the
Netherlands: CGIAR Research Program on
Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security
(CCAFS). Chapter 5. 69-90.
Candida, M., Smyth, I., & Mukhopadhyay, M. (1999).
A Guide to Gender-Analysis Frameworks.
Food and Agricultural Organization. (2018).
Country Gender Assessment of Agriculture and
the Rural Sector in the Philippines. Manila. 58
pp. Licensce: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. http://www.
Ganga, Z. & Posa, M. (1996). Does Farmer
Participation Make a Difference? Selection of
Sweetpotatoes in the Northern Philippine
Highlands. UPWARD Into Action Research:
Partnerships in Asian Rootcrop Research and
Development. CIP-UPWARD, Los Baños, Laguna,
Gayao, B.T., Meldoz, D.T., & Backian, G.S. (2013-
2014). Traditional Roots and Tubers Knowledge
Series #1-14. Northern Philippines Root Crops
Research and Training Center, La Trinidad,
Gayao, B.T., Meldoz, D.T., & Backian, G.S. (2017).
Traditional Knowledge on Roots and Tubers: Known,
Grown, and Utilized by Indigenous People in
Northern Philippines. La Trinidad 2601 Benguet,
Philippines: Northern Philippines Root Crops Research and Training Center-
Benguet State University and Neys-van Hoogstraten
Foundation, The Netherlands. 153p.
Gayao, B.T., Meldoz, D.T., & Backian, G.S. (2018).
Indigenous knowledge and household food
security: the role of root and tuber crops among
indigenous peoples in the Northern Philippines.
Chapter 3. In: Niehof, A., Gartaula, H.N. and
Quetolio-Navarra, M. (eds) Diversity and change
in food wellbeing: cases from Southeast Asia
and Nepal. Wageningen Academic Publishers,
Wageningen, the Netherlands, pp.43-70.
Koirala, K.H., Mishra, A.K., & Mohanty, S. (2015).
The Role of Gender in Agricultural Productivity
in the Philippines: The Average Treatment
Effect. Selected Paper prepared for presentation
at the Southern Agricultural Economics
Association’s 2015 Annual Meeting, Atlanta,
Georgia, January 31-February 3, 2015. https://
Mudege, N.N., Mayanja, S., & Naziri, D. (2016).
Technical Report. Gender Situational Analysis
of the Sweetpotato Value Chain in Central and
Eastern Uganda and Strategies for Gender
Equity in Postharvest Innovations: Expanding
Utilization of Roots, Tubers and Bananas
and Reducing Their Postharvest Losses.
Ogato, G.S., Boon, E.K., & Subramani, J. (2009).
Gender Roles in Crop Production and
Management Practices: A Case Study of
Three Rural Communities in Ambo District,
Ethiopia. Journal of Human Ecology, 27(1): 1-20.
Paris, T. (2002). Gender Roles in Rootcrop Livelihood
Systems and Food Security in the Philippines.
UPWARD Secondary farmers of secondary crops?
Women and rootcrop livelihood in the Philippines.
FAO-RAP Project, CIP-UPWARD, Los Baños,
Laguna, Philippines. 21-34.
Paris, T.R., & Rola-Rubzen, M.F. (2019). Gender
Dimension of Climate Change Research for
Agriculture in Southeast Asia: An Introduction.
Gender Dimension of Climate Change Research in
Agriculture: Case Studies in Southeast Asia.
Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate
Study and Research in Agriculture (SEARCA),
College, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; and
Wageningen, the Netherlands: CGIAR Research
Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and
Food Security (CCAFS). Chapter 1. 2-10. https://
Philippine Statistics Authority. (2019). Crop
Statistics of the Philippines 2014-2018.
Prain, G., & Naziri, D. (2020). The role of root and
tuber crops in strengthening agri-food system
resilience in Asia. A literature review and
selective stakeholder assessment. International
Potato Center. https://www.researchgate.net/
Sim, J., & Meldoz, D. (2002). Women in sweetpotato
enterprise development in La Union Province
and Baguio City, Northern Luzon. UPWARD
Secondary farmers of secondary crops? Women and
rootcrop livelihood in the Philippines. FAO-RAP
Project, CIP-UPWARD, Los Baños, Laguna,
Velasco, E. (1991). Gender-Role Differentiation in
Sweetpotato Farming Households. In:
Sweetpotato Cultures of Asia and South
Pacific. Proceedings of the 2nd Annual UPWARD
International Conference. Los Baños,